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男女不平等とワーク・ライフ・バランス — ドイツにおける社会変化と少子化問題

This paper discusses gender inequalities and issues of work-life balance in Germany. The inequality of women and men in German public and private life remains a significant feature of German society in the beginning of the 21st century. Even though the advancement of women in the public sector is visible, full equality still has not been realized, as the higher the ranks of education and employment, the less equality there can be found between the sexes. The paper furthermore draws on international comparisons, with particular interest to the situation in Japan, which experiences similar societal changes in terms of the ageing of population, fertility decline, and marriage and divorce rates. Particularly structural factors contribute to the problem of hindering women to fully join the workforce, to gain access to positions of political and financial power and decision-making in greater numbers. Political efforts have lately focused on such structural hindrances by designing and implementing significant improvements in regards to the availability of public childcare and also by taking up European guidelines of gender mainstreaming in many areas of social life. How effective these efforts are in the end remains to be seen in the future.

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