Die räumliche Verteilung der Ausländerbevölkerung in Japan : Strukturen und Erklärungsansätze
The percentage of foreigners as part of the population of Japan has recently increased, thereby creating new patterns in their spatial distribution. The aim of the present article is to look for the underlying determinants of these patterns both at the interprefectural level and the intermunicipal level inside Tōkyō Prefecture. By using both cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis it is demonstrated that there are distinct regional concentrations of foreigners and that, even on an inter-urban scale, these concentrations are predominantly caused by proximity of work places as well as general socio-economic factors. Ethnic discrimination, on the other hand, is not a decisive factor. With regard to specific ethnic groups, segregation from the Japanese population varies with the degree of these groups’ social homogeneity: the residential location patterns of expatriate Europeans or North Americans, nearly all holding a high social status, are very different from those of the Japanese, whereas other nationalities like the Chinese or the Filipinos, for example, display a much lower segregation level either because of group heterogeneity or higher work place dispersion. In general, however, segregation levels are rather low and caused by purely socio-economic factors, thereby resembling much more the situation of Gastarbeiter minorities in Central Europe than the ethnic ghettoes of North American cities. The article concludes with the suggestion that the extreme vigour of land-use changes in Japanese cities as well as the growing dispersal of work places needing foreign labour will prevent high segregation levels in Japan in the future.