Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan
The aim of this paper is to clarify in what ways school performance and out-of-school lessons are linked, with special emphasis on social disparities in educational attainment. Previous research about shadow education indicates that out-of-school education may indeed be a factor to improve the academic achievement of school students. On the other hand, it is stated nearly without exception that the socioeconomic background of a student plays a significant role for academic achievement as well. Using data of the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this paper shows new findings in comparing effects of shadow education investments on students’ performance in Japan and Germany. We found that out-of-school education investments in both countries led to four significant outcomes: (i) in Japan, high school students’ academic achievement is increased due to out-of-school lessons; (ii) in both countries there is great variation in how out-of-school lessons affect academic performance according to the types of out-of-school lessons and the area of stay; (iii) out-of-school education determines higher achievement scores in international comparison in a decisive way and therefore provides a reasonable explanation for the Japanese success in PISA; and (iv) since the mid-1990s the system in Japan has advanced from a mixed to a predominantly enrichment out-of-school education system, while the German out-of-school education system is still of remedial character.